Research / Science


A number of meta-analyses of the scientific research literature (Hoffman et al., 2010Koury et al., 2013; Piet & Hougaard, 2011) have shown that the clinical program, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) reduces the risk of depression relapse by 43% for those whom have experienced more than 3 previous episodes, and mindfulness-based interventions have generally been shown to be effective for reducing anxiety, depression and stress. However, much more research is required to determine the efficacy of MBCT/MBSR and related mindfulness programs for specific problems beyond depression relapse prevention and stress reduction (Dimidjian and Segal, 2015).


Websites for Further Reading


Additional References

  • Astin, J. A. (1997). Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation: Effects on psychological symptomatology, sense of control, and spirititual experiences. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 66, 97-106.
  • Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10 (2), 125-143.
  • Benson, H., & Beary, J., & Carol, M. (1974). The relaxation response. Psychiatry, 37, 37-46.
  • Brown, K. & Ryan, R. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84 (4), 822-848.
  • Cahn, B. & Polich, J. (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin, 13 (2), 180-211.
  • Craigie, M. A., Rees, C., Marsh, A., & Nathan, P. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary evaluation. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 553-568.
  • Craigie, M. A., Rees, C., Marsh, A, & Nathan, P. (2005). Mindfulness training for generalized anxiety disorder: Investigating changes in perceived control, fear of emotions, and intolerance of uncertainty. Paper presented at the European Association for Behaviour and Cognitive Therapy 35th Annual Conference, Thessaloniki Greece.
  • Davidson et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564-570.
  • Delmonte, M. M. (1985). Meditation and anxiety reduction: A literature review. Clinical Psychology Review, 5, 91-102.
  • Dimidjian, S. & Linehan, M. M. (2003). Defining an agenda for future research on the clinical application of mindfulness practice. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10 (2), 166-171.
  • Grossman et al. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 35-43.
  • Lazar, S. W. et al. (2000). Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation. Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research, 11 (7), 1581-1585.
  • Leher, P. M. (1996). Varieties of relaxation methods and their unique effects. International Journal of Stress Managment, 3 (1), 1-15.
  • Lehrer, P. M. et al. (1994). Stress management techniques: Are they equvialent or do they have specific effects. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 4, 353-401.
  • Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223-250.
  • Ree, M. & Craigie, M. A. (2007). Outcomes following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a heterogeneous sample of adult outpatients. Behaviour Change, 24 (2), 70-86.
  • Teasdale, J. D. et al. (2000). Preventing relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 615-623.
  • Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z., & Williams, M. G. (2003). Mindfulness training and problem formulation. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 157-106.
  • Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., et al. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: Empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70 (2), 275-287.